TO deal with the worsening energy situation, Congress, despite strong opposition, passed into law Republic Act (RA) 7648, or the Electric Power Crisis Act of 1993 (EPCA) empowering then-President Fidel V. Ramos with emergency powers to enter into negotiated contracts with independent power producers (IPPs). Subsequently, Congress complemented EPCA with RA 7718, or the expanded build-operate-transfer…