SINGAPORE, April 25 (NNN-Xinhua) -- Leaders of the 10 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) gather here from April 25 to April 28 for their 32nd summit and related meetings.
Singapore, the rotating chair of ASEAN for 2018, has set this year's theme as "Resilient and Innovative ASEAN."
Last year marked the 50th anniversary of the establishment of ASEAN, which is focused on economic integration and growth, and consensus-building.
The following is a brief introduction to the previous ASEAN summits and their main achievements:
The 1st ASEAN summit was held in Bali, Indonesia, in February 1976. The leaders of ASEAN member countries endorsed the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia and the Declaration of ASEAN Concord.
The 2nd ASEAN summit was in Kuala Lumpur, capital of Malaysia, in August 1977, at which a joint communique was signed.
The 3rd ASEAN summit was held in Manila, the Philippines, in December 1987. The summit approved the Manila Declaration 1987 and four major economic agreements aimed at promoting economic cooperation within the organization.
The 4th ASEAN summit was convened in Singapore in January 1992. The leaders of ASEAN member countries signed the Singapore Declaration and a framework agreement on enhancing ASEAN economic cooperation. They decided to hold a summit every three years.
The 5th ASEAN summit was held in Bangkok, Thailand, in December 1995, during which the Bangkok Declaration was adopted. The leaders signed a number of documents with the aim of promoting economic and political cooperation. They also agreed to hold informal meetings every year.
The 6th ASEAN summit was in Hanoi, Vietnam, in December 1998. The leaders approved the Hanoi Declaration, the Hanoi Plan of Action and a number of what they called "bold measures" to strengthen economic, political and security cooperation.
The 7th ASEAN summit was held in Bandar Seri Begawan, capital of Brunei, in November 2001. The leaders endorsed the Mid-Term Review of the Hanoi Plan of Action and identified new priorities which included ASEAN integration, information and communications technology along with human capacity building. The leaders also adopted a 2001 ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action to Counter Terrorism and a Declaration on HIV/AIDS.
The 8th ASEAN summit was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in November 2002. The leaders discussed and reached a consensus on regional and international issues of common concern, which included ASEAN integration and the fight against terrorism. They signed the ASEAN Tourism Agreement.
The 9th ASEAN summit was in Bali, Indonesia, in October 2003. The leaders adopted a milestone document - the Declaration of ASEAN Concord II, also known as Bali Concord II, which envisions the establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2020.
The 10th ASEAN summit was held in Vientiane, Laos, in November 2004, at which the leaders adopted the Vientiane Action Program to build an ASEAN community through realizing comprehensive integration.
The 11th ASEAN summit was in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in October 2005. The meeting adopted the Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the Establishment of the ASEAN Charter.
The 12th ASEAN summit was held in Cebu, the Philippines, in January 2007. The leaders endorsed the Cebu Declaration on the blueprint of the ASEAN Chart to form the basis of a mini constitution that seeks to transform the ASEAN into a legal entity with binding rules and regulations.
At the 13th ASEAN summit in Singapore in November 2007, ASEAN leaders signed the ASEAN Charter and the Declaration on the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint.
At the 14th ASEAN summit in Thailand in February 2009, ASEAN leaders signed the Cha-am Hua Hin Declaration on the Roadmap for an ASEAN Community (2009-2015).
ASEAN leaders at the 15th ASEAN summit in October 2009 adopted the Cha-am Hua Hin Declaration on the Inauguration of the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights, Cha-am Hua Hin Declaration on Strengthening Cooperation on Education to Achieve an ASEAN Caring and Sharing Community and Draft ASEAN Joint Statement on Climate Change.
The 16th ASEAN summit, held in Hanoi, Vietnam in April 2010, focused on measures to enhance solidarity and cooperation within the group and to deepen ASEAN's ties with partners. The leaders pledged to effectively implement the group's cooperation pacts over the next five years.
In October 2010, leaders attending the 17th ASEAN summit in Vietnam adopted several key documents on strengthening connectivity within the bloc, on the improvement of human resources development and on the protection of women and children.
At the 18th ASEAN summit held in May 2011 in Jakarta, Indonesia, the leaders agreed and adopted three joint statements on "ASEAN Community in a Global Community of Nations," "Establishment of the ASEAN Institute for Peace and Reconciliation" and "Enhancing Cooperation against Trafficking in Persons in Southeast Asia."
At the 19th ASEAN summit held in Bali, Indonesia, in November 2011, the ASEAN leaders adopted the Bali Declaration on ASEAN Community in a Global Community of Nations, or the Bali Concord III, the Agreement of the Establishment of the ASEAN Coordinating Center for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management, and the ASEAN Declaration on Unity in Diversity: Toward Strengthening the ASEAN Community.
At the 20th summit held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in April 2012, the ASEAN leaders adopted four outcome documents, namely the Phnom Penh Agenda on ASEAN Community Building, the Phnom Penh Declaration on "ASEAN: One Community, One Destiny," the ASEAN Leaders' Declaration on Drug-Free ASEAN 2015 and the Global Movement of Moderates.
Three outcome documents were adopted in the 21st summit held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in November 2012, namely the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, ASEAN Leaders' Statement on the Establishment of an ASEAN Regional Mine Action center and Bali Concord III Plan of Action. The leaders also committed to launching the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015.
At the 22nd summit held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam in April 2013, the leaders agreed to push ahead with the ASEAN Roadmap and ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint, and to intensify regional and subregional efforts to realize the goal of establishing an ASEAN Community by the end of 2015. The ASEAN leaders also reached consensus on starting negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership in Brunei.
The 23rd summit, also held in Bandar Seri Begawan in October, 2013, focused on ASEAN community building and a post-2015 vision for the group. ASEAN leaders adopted several documents, including the Bandar Seri Begawan Declaration on the ASEAN Community's Post-2015 Vision.
Leaders attending the 24th summit held in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar reaffirmed their commitment to pushing ASEAN toward its integration deadline. The summit adopted the Nay Pyi Taw Declaration on Realization of the ASEAN Community in 2015.
The 25th summit, which was held in Nay Pyi Taw in November 2014, focused on ASEAN community building and a post-2015 vision for the group. ASEAN leaders adopted the Nay Pyi Taw Declaration on the ASEAN Community's Post 2015 Vision.
Leaders at the 26th summit in Kuala Lumpur and Langkawi, Malaysia, adopted the Kuala Lumpur Declaration on a People-Oriented, People-Centered ASEAN, a milestone in the history of the grouping, and the Langkawi Declaration on the Global Movement of Moderates as well as the Declaration on Institutionalizing the Resilience of ASEAN and its Communities and People to Disasters and Climate Change.
The 27th summit was held in November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur at which the regional bloc announced the establishment of the ASEAN Community on Dec. 31, 2015. Kuala Lumpur Declaration on ASEAN 2025: Forging Ahead Together was also endorsed at the summit. It charts the path for ASEAN Community building over the next 10 years.
Held in September 2016, the 28th and 29th summits in Vientiane adopted the Initiative for ASEAN Integration Work Plan III and the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity 2025, an integral part of the ASEAN 2025: Forging Ahead Together, in a bid to strengthen the determination in advancing the ASEAN community building process.
During their 30th summit held in April 2017 in Manila, ASEAN leaders reaffirmed their commitment that the ASEAN Community Vision 2025 and the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development would be implemented in a mutually-reinforcing manner to build a truly inclusive and people-oriented, people-centered ASEAN Community.
At the 31st summit also held in Manila in November last year, participants agreed to adopt a number of declarations and statements to build an integrated, stable and prosperous community in the fast-growing region.
They signed the ASEAN Consensus on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers. Ten ASEAN leaders and their six trading partners - Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand also reaffirmed their commitment to wrap up the 16-nation regional trade pact by 2018.
ASEAN groups Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
Source: NAM News Network